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Forum: ARM programming with GCC/GNU tools Linker error, undefined reference to `_sbrk'


von jrmymllr j. (jrmymllr)


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I'm trying to compile an MP3 decoder (Helix) with CodeSourcery for ARM
Cortex-M3, and can't shake this error:

arm-none-eabi/lib/thumb2\libc.a(lib_a-sbrkr.o): In function `_sbrk_r':
sbrkr.c:(.text+0xc): undefined reference to `_sbrk'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status


I've spent hours searching the Internet for info on the error, and hours
fiddling with things trying to fix it.  I can compile a simple LED blink
program.  I believe this error is related to "syscall", but I don't
understand what I need to do to fix it.  Wouldn't this be handled by the
compiler?  If not, would it be possible that the micro vendor (Luminary)
provides a library with the missing piece?  I'd gladly read a small book
to resolve this problem, but don't know what or where to look for it.

von Martin T. (mthomas) (Moderator)


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Jerry Milner wrote:
> I'm trying to compile an MP3 decoder (Helix) with CodeSourcery for ARM
> Cortex-M3, and can't shake this error:
>
> arm-none-eabi/lib/thumb2\libc.a(lib_a-sbrkr.o): In function `_sbrk_r':
> sbrkr.c:(.text+0xc): undefined reference to `_sbrk'
> collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
>
>
> I've spent hours searching the Internet for info on the error, and hours
> fiddling with things trying to fix it.  I can compile a simple LED blink
> program.  I believe this error is related to "syscall", but I don't
> understand what I need to do to fix it.

The fix is to provide the requested function _sbrk.

> Wouldn't this be handled by the compiler?

No, it's not related to the compiler but to the libc (=newlib). I expect
the MP3-decoder source from the Helix community uses malloc. It seem
that in the CS newlib configuration malloc calls the reentrant version
of _sbrk_r which is already in libc.a and _sbrk_r calls _sbrk which has
to be provided.

> If not, would it be possible that the micro vendor (Luminary)
> provides a library with the missing piece?

Sure, they could add this to the driver-library. But it's not that
difficult to add it yourself.

> I'd gladly read a small book to resolve this problem, but don't know
> what or where to look for it.

(1) I expect you are using the linker-script form the Luminary
Driver-Library (standalone.ld). Modify this script a little bit:

[...]
.bss :
{
  _bss = .;
  *(.bss*)
  *(COMMON)
  _ebss = .;
  . = ALIGN (8);
  _end = .;
} > SRAM

PROVIDE(__HEAP_START = _end );
[...]

(2) create a file syscalls.c and add the following code:

/* based on a example-code from Keil for CS G++ */

/* for caddr_t (typedef char * caddr_t;) */
#include <sys/types.h>

extern int  __HEAP_START;

caddr_t _sbrk ( int incr )
{
  static unsigned char *heap = NULL;
  unsigned char *prev_heap;

  if (heap == NULL) {
    heap = (unsigned char *)&__HEAP_START;
  }
  prev_heap = heap;
  /* check removed to show basic approach */

  heap += incr;

  return (caddr_t) prev_heap;
}

(3) make sure the file is compiled and the object-code from it gets
linked

This should get you started (not tested here). You can add additional
"out of heap-space" checks later if needed.

Hope this helps.

EDIT: added include

von jrmymllr j. (jrmymllr)


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Martin Thomas wrote:

> This should get you started (not tested here). You can add additional
> "out of heap-space" checks later if needed.
>
> Hope this helps.
>
> EDIT: added include


Thank you!  I initially tried to get it to compile, but that was without
the include.  I didn't spend much extra time on it until now.  It's
compiling....now I have a place to start.

von Guo J. (Company: fsl) (guojia1979)


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Martin Thomas wrote:


Thank you very much, I really appreciate it! It help me save much time.

von Edi G. (yo3hcv)


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Hmmm.. after 10 years still a excellent reply!


I had the same problem on Tensillica LX6 MCU and you save my day.
Creating syscalls.c solved everything.

THANK YOU!

von Abdelrahman Ahmed (Guest)


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11 years later it still works. Thank you very much.

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