Forum: ARM programming with GCC/GNU tools USB: get main.elf. Need main.bin

Author: Dima Bulkin (mrengineer)
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Well, I solved a lot of problems to compile an Basic USB example. Now I
do not know is it o.k. about enumeration, because after compilation I
get not main.bin, but main.elf file. How to change make file to get

Here is makefile with changes:

# project specific flashtool - uses Keil's uVision and ULINK
# (www.keil.com), needs a configured uVision Workspace
# for "batch programming"

# MCU name and submodel
MCU = arm7tdmi
THUMB    = -mthumb
THUMB_IW = -mthumb-interwork

## Create ROM-Image (final)
## Create RAM-Image (debugging)

# with / at end

## TODO for this example - just a placeholder
## interrupt vectors in ROM
## interrupt vectors in RAM

# Output format. (can be srec, ihex, binary)
FORMAT = binary

# Target file name (without extension).
TARGET = main

# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically
# use file-extension c for "c-only"-files
SRC = $(TARGET).c cdc_enumerate.c dbgu.c
# only needed for the "dll-Target":
SRC += syscalls.c

# List C source files here which must be compiled in ARM-Mode.
# use file-extension c for "c-only"-files
SRCARM = interrupt_Usart.c Cstartup_SAM7.c

# List C++ source files here.
# use file-extension cpp for C++-files (use extension .cpp)

# List C++ source files here which must be compiled in ARM-Mode.
# use file-extension cpp for C++-files (use extension .cpp)

# List Assembler source files here.
# Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
# will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
# output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
# Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
# it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
# care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.

# List Assembler source files here which must be assembled in ARM-Mode..
ASRCARM = Cstartup.S

# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s].
# 0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
# (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s
#OPT = 0

# Debugging format.
# Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are stabs [default], or dwarf-2.
# AVR (extended) COFF requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
#DEBUG = stabs
DEBUG = dwarf-2

# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
#EXTRAINCDIRS = ./include

# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
# c89   - "ANSI" C
# gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
# c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
# gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99

# Place -D or -U options for C here

# Place -I options here

# Place -D or -U options for ASM here

# Compiler flags.
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
# Flags for C and C++ (arm-elf-gcc/arm-elf-g++)
CFLAGS += -Wall -Wcast-align -Wimplicit
CFLAGS += -Wpointer-arith -Wswitch
CFLAGS += -Wredundant-decls -Wreturn-type -Wshadow -Wunused
CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(subst $(suffix $<),.lst,$<)
CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))
#AT91-lib warnings with:
##CFLAGS += -Wcast-qual

# flags only for C
CONLYFLAGS += -Wnested-externs
#AT91-lib warnings with:
##CONLYFLAGS += -Wmissing-prototypes
##CONLYFLAGS  = -Wstrict-prototypes
##CONLYFLAGS += -Wmissing-declarations

# flags only for C++ (arm-elf-g++)
# CPPFLAGS = -fno-rtti -fno-exceptions

# Assembler flags.
#  -Wa,...:   tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlms:    create listing
#  -gstabs:   have the assembler create line number information; note
#             for use in COFF files, additional information about
#             and function names needs to be present in the assembler
#             files -- see avr-libc docs [FIXME: not yet described
##ASFLAGS = -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-gstabs
ASFLAGS = $(ADEFS) -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),-g$(DEBUG)

#Additional libraries.

#Support for newlibc-lpc (file: libnewlibc-lpc.a)
#NEWLIBLPC = -lnewlib-lpc

MATH_LIB = -lm

# CPLUSPLUS_LIB = -lstdc++

# Linker flags.
#  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#    -Map:      create map file
#    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -nostartfiles -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
LDFLAGS += -lc
LDFLAGS += -lc -lgcc

# Set Linker-Script Depending On Selected Memory
ifeq ($(RUN_MODE),RAM_RUN)

# Flash-Programming support using lpc21isp by Martin Maurer

# Settings and variables:
#LPC21ISP = lpc21isp
LPC21ISP = lpc21isp_beta
LPC21ISP_PORT = com1
LPC21ISP_BAUD = 115200
LPC21ISP_XTAL = 14746
# verbose output:
## LPC21ISP_DEBUG = -debug
# enter bootloader via RS232 DTR/RTS (only if hardware supports this
# feature - see Philips AppNote):
LPC21ISP_CONTROL = -control


# Define directories, if needed.
## DIRARM = c:/WinARM/
## DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin/

# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = cmd
CC = arm-elf-gcc
CPP = arm-elf-g++
OBJCOPY = arm-elf-objcopy
OBJDUMP = arm-elf-objdump
SIZE = arm-elf-size
NM = arm-elf-nm
REMOVE = rm -f
COPY = cp

# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = -------- begin --------
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before:
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling C:
MSG_COMPILING_ARM = "Compiling C (ARM-only):"
MSG_COMPILINGCPP_ARM = "Compiling C++ (ARM-only):"
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_ASSEMBLING_ARM = "Assembling (ARM-only):"
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
MSG_LPC21_RESETREMINDER = You may have to bring the target in
bootloader-mode now.

# Define all object files.
COBJ      = $(SRC:.c=.o)
AOBJ      = $(ASRC:.S=.o)
COBJARM   = $(SRCARM:.c=.o)
CPPOBJ    = $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.o)

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(ASRCARM:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)
LST += $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.lst) $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.lst)

# Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
### GENDEPFLAGS = -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,$(*F).o,-MF,.dep/$(@F).d
#GENDEPFLAGS = -MD -MP -MF .dep/$(@F).d

# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mcpu=$(MCU) $(THUMB_IW) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp

# Default target.
all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter finished end

build: elf hex lss sym

elf: $(TARGET).elf
hex: $(TARGET).hex
lss: $(TARGET).lss
sym: $(TARGET).sym

# Eye candy.
  @echo $(MSG_BEGIN)

  @echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)

  @echo $(MSG_END)

# Display size of file.
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
  @if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE);
$(ELFSIZE); echo; fi

  @if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER);
$(ELFSIZE); echo; fi

# Display compiler version information.
gccversion :
  @$(CC) --version

# Program the device.
# Program the device with Keil's ULINK (needs configured
program: $(TARGET).hex
  @echo "Programming with ULINK"
  C:\Keil\uv3\Uv3.exe -f ulinkflash.Uv2 -oulinkflash.txt
# Program the device.  - lpc21isp will not work for SAM7
program: $(TARGET).hex

# Create final output files (.hex, .eep) from ELF output file.
# TODO: handling the .eeprom-section should be redundant
%.hex: %.elf
  @echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
  $(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
# testing: option -C
%.lss: %.elf
  $(OBJDUMP) -h -S -C $< > $@

# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
  @echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
  $(NM) -n $< > $@

# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
  @echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
$(CPPOBJ) $(CPPOBJARM) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
$(CPPOBJ) $(CPPOBJARM) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)

# Compile: create object files from C source files. ARM/Thumb
$(COBJ) : %.o : %.c
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
  $(CC) -c $(THUMB) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CONLYFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create object files from C source files. ARM-only
$(COBJARM) : %.o : %.c
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILING_ARM) $<
  $(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CONLYFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create object files from C++ source files. ARM/Thumb
$(CPPOBJ) : %.o : %.cpp
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILINGCPP) $<
  $(CPP) -c $(THUMB) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create object files from C++ source files. ARM-only
$(CPPOBJARM) : %.o : %.cpp
  $(CPP) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create assembler files from C source files. ARM/Thumb
## does not work - TODO - hints welcome
##$(COBJ) : %.s : %.c
##  $(CC) $(THUMB) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files. ARM/Thumb
$(AOBJ) : %.o : %.S
  @echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
  $(CC) -c $(THUMB) $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files. ARM-only
$(AOBJARM) : %.o : %.S
  @echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING_ARM) $<
  $(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list finished end

clean_list :
  @echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
  $(REMOVE) $(LST)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRCARM:.c=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRCARM:.c=.d)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.d)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.d)
  $(REMOVE) .dep/*

# Include the dependency files.
-include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)

# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
build elf hex lss sym clean clean_list program

Author: Martin Thomas (mthomas) (Moderator)
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The makefile is based on an old template which had (at least) one small
issue: the load-image file always has the extension .hex. But the
content matches the format setting (binary, ihex etc). Quick workaround:
keep FORMAT=binary and rename main.hex to main.bin after the "make all".
For a "real" solution see the makefiles from newer examples (i.e. AT91
"gamma") where the file-extension matches the content-format.


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