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Forum: ARM programming with GCC/GNU tools "Better" Makefile for FreeRTOS SAM7X demo under WinARM


Author: Joe Dupre (jdupre)
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Thanks to Sven Koop for the concise instructions on compiling the SAM7X
FreeRTOS demo in WinARM.  (See topic 67145)

I have made a WinARM/WinAVR style make file for use under command line
or Eclipse.  In doing so I discovered that my new Makefile creates a
smaller binary file and I do not know why.

The FreeRTOS Makefile (with optimization set to -Os) creates a 70K
rtosdemo.bin.
This new Makefile creates 62K rtosdemo.bin

My Makefile generates a lot more warnings, but the resulting binary
appears to run exactly like the original from what I can tell.


- jmd



To replicate:

1. Extract the FreeRTOS source tree (I used v4.0.4)

2. Copy syscalls.c from the WinARM AT91SAM7S-BasicUSB example to the
lwIP_Demo_Rowley_ARM7 directory.

3. Edit syscalls.c to add the following two lines:
  #include "board.h"
  #define __inline static inline  /* Add this line */
  #include "lib_AT91SAM7X256.h"  /* Add this line */

4. Edit freertos\source\portable\gcc\arm7_at91sam7s\lib_at91sam7x256.h:
Change the "AT91F_AIC_ConfigureIt" to "AT91F_AIC_ConfigureItH" (2
places)

5. Use this Makefile:


# Hey Emacs, this is a -*- makefile -*-
#
# WinARM template makefile
# by Martin Thomas, Kaiserslautern, Germany
# <eversmith@heizung-thomas.de>
#
# based on the WinAVR makefile written by Eric B. Weddington, Jörg
Wunsch, et al.
# Released to the Public Domain
# Please read the make user manual!
#
#
# On command line:
#
# make all = Make software.
#
# make clean = Clean out built project files.
#
# make program = Download the hex file to the device
#
# (TODO: make filename.s = Just compile filename.c into the assembler
code only)
#
# To rebuild project do "make clean" then "make all".
#
# Changelog:
# - 17. Feb. 2005  - added thumb-interwork support (mth)
# - 28. Apr. 2005  - added C++ support (mth)
# - 29. Arp. 2005  - changed handling for lst-Filename (mth)
# -  1. Nov. 2005  - exception-vector placement options (mth)
# - 15. Nov. 2005  - added library-search-path (EXTRA_LIB...) (mth)
# -  2. Dec. 2005  - fixed ihex and binary file extensions (mth)
# - 22. Feb. 2006  - added AT91LIBNOWARN setting (mth)
# - 19. Apr. 2006  - option FLASH_TOOL (default lpc21isp); variable
IMGEXT (mth)
#

# Modified 27 July 2006 for FreeRTOS 4.0.4 lwIP_Demo_Rowley_ARM7 demo
project
# The FreeRTOS Makefile generates a 70K binary (with -0s flag)
# This Makefile generates a 62K binary.  WHY???
# -jmd


#FLASH_TOOL = UVISION
#FLASH_TOOL = OPENOCD

# MCU name and submodel
MCU      = arm7tdmi
#FreeRTOS demo uses "atmel-rom.ld" for linker script, not
"AT91SAM7S-rom.ld"
#SUBMDL   = AT91SAM7S64
SUBMDL = atmel
THUMB    = -mthumb
THUMB_IW = -mthumb-interwork

## This setting chooses which linker script to use
## Create ROM-Image (final)
RUN_MODE=ROM_RUN
## Create RAM-Image (debugging) - not used in this example
#RUN_MODE=RAM_RUN


## Exception vectors not used in the FreeRTOS demo -jmd
## Exception-Vector placement only supported for "ROM_RUN"
## (placement settings ignored when using "RAM_RUN")
## - Exception vectors in ROM:
#VECTOR_LOCATION=VECTORS_IN_ROM
## - Exception vectors in RAM:
#VECTOR_LOCATION=VECTORS_IN_RAM


# Target file name (without extension).
# This only specifies the name of the output file(s),
# not used to define any source files. -jmd
TARGET = rtosdemo

# List C source files here. (C dependencies are automatically
generated.)
# use file-extension c for "c-only"-files
#SRC = $(TARGET).c

# Cut & paste from FreeRTOS Makefile, but added syscalls.c
FREERTOS_THUMB_SRC= \
  ../../Source/tasks.c \
  ../../Source/queue.c \
  ../../Source/list.c \
  ../../Source/portable/GCC/ARM7_AT91SAM7S/port.c \
  syscalls.c

DEMO_APP_THUMB_SRC= \
  ../../Source/portable/MemMang/heap_2.c \
  ParTest/ParTest.c \
  main.c \
  ../Common/Minimal/flash.c \
  ../Common/Minimal/BlockQ.c \
  ../Common/Minimal/integer.c \
  ../Common/Minimal/PollQ.c \
  ../Common/Minimal/semtest.c \
  BasicWEB.c \
  USB/USB-CDC.c

LWIP_THUMB_SRC= \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/tcp_out.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/inet.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/mem.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/memp.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/netif.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/pbuf.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/raw.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/stats.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/sys.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/tcp.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/tcp_in.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/ipv4/ip.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/ipv4/ip_addr.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/ipv4/icmp.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/api/tcpip.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/api/api_msg.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/api/err.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/api/api_lib.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/netif/etharp.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/contrib/port/FreeRTOS/AT91SAM7X/sys_arch.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/netif/ethernetif.c \
  EMAC/SAM7_EMAC.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/udp.c \
  lwip-1.1.0/src/core/ipv4/ip_frag.c

SRC = $(FREERTOS_THUMB_SRC) $(DEMO_APP_THUMB_SRC) $(LWIP_THUMB_SRC)

# List C source files here which must be compiled in ARM-Mode.
# use file-extension c for "c-only"-files
#SRCARM  = common/Cstartup_SAM7.c

SRCARM = \
  ../../Source/portable/GCC/ARM7_AT91SAM7S/portISR.c \
  EMAC/SAM7_EMAC_ISR.c \
  USB/USBIsr.c \
  Cstartup_SAM7.c

# List C++ source files here.
# use file-extension cpp for C++-files (use extension .cpp)
CPPSRC =

# List C++ source files here which must be compiled in ARM-Mode.
# use file-extension cpp for C++-files (use extension .cpp)
#CPPSRCARM = $(TARGET).cpp
CPPSRCARM =

# List Assembler source files here.
# Make them always end in a capital .S.  Files ending in a lowercase .s
# will not be considered source files but generated files (assembler
# output from the compiler), and will be deleted upon "make clean"!
# Even though the DOS/Win* filesystem matches both .s and .S the same,
# it will preserve the spelling of the filenames, and gcc itself does
# care about how the name is spelled on its command-line.
ASRC =

# List Assembler source files here which must be assembled in ARM-Mode..
#ASRCARM  = common/Cstartup.S
#ASRCARM += common/swi_handler.S
ASRCARM = boot.S


## Output format. (can be ihex or binary)
## (binary i.e. for openocd and SAM-BA, hex i.e. for lpc21isp and
uVision)
#FORMAT = ihex
FORMAT = binary

# Optimization level, can be [0, 1, 2, 3, s].
# 0 = turn off optimization. s = optimize for size.
# (Note: 3 is not always the best optimization level. See avr-libc FAQ.)
OPT = s

# Debugging format.
# Native formats for AVR-GCC's -g are stabs [default], or dwarf-2.
# AVR (extended) COFF requires stabs, plus an avr-objcopy run.
#DEBUG = stabs
DEBUG = dwarf-2

# List any extra directories to look for include files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
#EXTRAINCDIRS = ./common
EXTRAINCDIRS =

# List any extra directories to look for library files here.
#     Each directory must be seperated by a space.
#EXTRA_LIBDIRS = ../arm7_efsl_0_2_4
EXTRA_LIBDIRS =

## Using the Atmel AT91_lib produces warning with
## the default warning-levels.
## yes - disable these warnings; no - keep default settings
AT91LIBNOWARN = yes
#AT91LIBNOWARN = no

# Compiler flag to set the C Standard level.
# c89   - "ANSI" C
# gnu89 - c89 plus GCC extensions
# c99   - ISO C99 standard (not yet fully implemented)
# gnu99 - c99 plus GCC extensions
CSTANDARD = -std=gnu99

## -D adds preprocessor defines (like #define within a source file)
## No need to pass RUN_MODE.  (Not used in AT91SAM7 samples) -jmd
# Place -D or -U options for C here
#CDEFS =  -D$(RUN_MODE)
CDEFS =

# Place -D or -U options for ASM here
#ADEFS =  -D$(RUN_MODE)
ADEFS =

ifdef VECTOR_LOCATION
CDEFS += -D$(VECTOR_LOCATION)
ADEFS += -D$(VECTOR_LOCATION)
endif

CDEFS += -D__WinARM__
ADEFS += -D__WinARM__

# Add definitions required by FreeRTOS
CDEFS += -DSAM7_GCC -DTHUMB_INTERWORK


# Place -I options here (include directories)
CINCS= \
-I.  \
-I./EMAC  \
-I../Common/include  \
-I./USB  \
-I./lwip-1.1.0/src/include  \
-I./lwip-1.1.0/contrib/port/FreeRTOS/AT91SAM7X  \
-I../../Source/include  \
-I../../Source/portable/GCC/ARM7_AT91SAM7S  \
-I./lwip-1.1.0/src/include/ipv4 \


# Compiler flags.
#  -g*:          generate debugging information
#  -O*:          optimization level
#  -f...:        tuning, see GCC manual and avr-libc documentation
#  -Wall...:     warning level
#  -Wa,...:      tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#    -adhlns...: create assembler listing
#
# Flags for C and C++ (arm-elf-gcc/arm-elf-g++)
CFLAGS = -g$(DEBUG)
CFLAGS += $(CDEFS) $(CINCS)
CFLAGS += -O$(OPT)
CFLAGS += -Wall -Wcast-align -Wimplicit
CFLAGS += -Wpointer-arith -Wswitch
CFLAGS += -Wredundant-decls -Wreturn-type -Wshadow -Wunused
CFLAGS += -Wa,-adhlns=$(subst $(suffix $<),.lst,$<)
CFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-I%,$(EXTRAINCDIRS))

# flags only for C
CONLYFLAGS += -Wnested-externs
CONLYFLAGS += $(CSTANDARD)

ifneq ($(AT91LIBNOWARN),yes)
#AT91-lib warnings with:
CFLAGS += -Wcast-qual
CONLYFLAGS += -Wmissing-prototypes
CONLYFLAGS += -Wstrict-prototypes
CONLYFLAGS += -Wmissing-declarations
endif

# flags only for C++ (arm-elf-g++)
# CPPFLAGS = -fno-rtti -fno-exceptions
CPPFLAGS =

# Assembler flags.
#  -Wa,...:    tell GCC to pass this to the assembler.
#  -ahlns:     create listing
#  -g$(DEBUG): have the assembler create line number information
ASFLAGS = $(ADEFS) -Wa,-adhlns=$(<:.S=.lst),--g$(DEBUG)


#Additional libraries.

# Extra libraries
#    Each library-name must be seperated by a space.
#    To add libxyz.a, libabc.a and libefsl.a:
#    EXTRA_LIBS = xyz abc efsl
#EXTRA_LIBS = efsl
EXTRA_LIBS =

#Support for newlibc-lpc (file: libnewlibc-lpc.a)
NEWLIBLPC = -lnewlib-lpc

MATH_LIB = -lm

# CPLUSPLUS_LIB = -lstdc++


# Linker flags.
#  -Wl,...:     tell GCC to pass this to linker.
#    -Map:      create map file
#    --cref:    add cross reference to  map file
LDFLAGS = -nostartfiles -Wl,-Map=$(TARGET).map,--cref
#-jmd #LDFLAGS += -lc
#-jmd #LDFLAGS += $(NEWLIBLPC) $(MATH_LIB)
#-jmd #LDFLAGS += -lc -lgcc
#-jmd #LDFLAGS += $(CPLUSPLUS_LIB)
#-jmd #LDFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-L%,$(EXTRA_LIBDIRS))
#-jmd #LDFLAGS += $(patsubst %,-l%,$(EXTRA_LIBS))

# Set Linker-Script Depending On Selected Memory and Controller
ifeq ($(RUN_MODE),RAM_RUN)
LDFLAGS +=-T$(SUBMDL)-RAM.ld
else
LDFLAGS +=-T$(SUBMDL)-ROM.ld
endif


#
------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
---
# Flash-Programming support using lpc21isp by Martin Maurer
# only for Philips LPC and Analog ADuC ARMs
#
# Settings and variables:
#LPC21ISP = lpc21isp
#LPC21ISP = lpc21isp
#LPC21ISP_PORT = com1
#LPC21ISP_BAUD = 38400
#LPC21ISP_XTAL = 12000
#LPC21ISP_FLASHFILE = $(TARGET).hex
# verbose output:
#LPC21ISP_DEBUG = -debug
# enter bootloader via RS232 DTR/RTS (only if hardware supports this
# feature - see Philips AppNote):
#LPC21ISP_CONTROL = -control
#
------------------------------------------------------------------------ 
---


# Define directories, if needed.
## DIRARM = c:/WinARM/
## DIRARMBIN = $(DIRAVR)/bin/
## DIRAVRUTILS = $(DIRAVR)/utils/bin/

# Define programs and commands.
SHELL = sh
CC = arm-elf-gcc
CPP = arm-elf-g++
OBJCOPY = arm-elf-objcopy
OBJDUMP = arm-elf-objdump
SIZE = arm-elf-size
NM = arm-elf-nm
REMOVE = rm -f
COPY = cp

# Define Messages
# English
MSG_ERRORS_NONE = Errors: none
MSG_BEGIN = "-------- begin (mode: $(RUN_MODE)) --------"
MSG_END = --------  end  --------
MSG_SIZE_BEFORE = Size before:
MSG_SIZE_AFTER = Size after:
MSG_FLASH = Creating load file for Flash:
MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING = Creating Extended Listing:
MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE = Creating Symbol Table:
MSG_LINKING = Linking:
MSG_COMPILING = Compiling C:
MSG_COMPILING_ARM = "Compiling C (ARM-only):"
MSG_COMPILINGCPP = Compiling C++:
MSG_COMPILINGCPP_ARM = "Compiling C++ (ARM-only):"
MSG_ASSEMBLING = Assembling:
MSG_ASSEMBLING_ARM = "Assembling (ARM-only):"
MSG_CLEANING = Cleaning project:
MSG_FORMATERROR = Can not handle output-format
MSG_LPC21_RESETREMINDER = You may have to bring the target in
bootloader-mode now.

# Define all object files.
COBJ      = $(SRC:.c=.o)
AOBJ      = $(ASRC:.S=.o)
COBJARM   = $(SRCARM:.c=.o)
AOBJARM   = $(ASRCARM:.S=.o)
CPPOBJ    = $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.o)
CPPOBJARM = $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.o)

# Define all listing files.
LST = $(ASRC:.S=.lst) $(ASRCARM:.S=.lst) $(SRC:.c=.lst)
$(SRCARM:.c=.lst)
LST += $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.lst) $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.lst)

# Compiler flags to generate dependency files.
### GENDEPFLAGS = -Wp,-M,-MP,-MT,$(*F).o,-MF,.dep/$(@F).d
GENDEPFLAGS = -MD -MP -MF .dep/$(@F).d

# Combine all necessary flags and optional flags.
# Add target processor to flags.
ALL_CFLAGS  = -mcpu=$(MCU) $(THUMB_IW) -I. $(CFLAGS) $(GENDEPFLAGS)
ALL_ASFLAGS = -mcpu=$(MCU) $(THUMB_IW) -I. -x assembler-with-cpp
$(ASFLAGS)


# Default target.
all: begin gccversion sizebefore build sizeafter finished end

ifeq ($(FORMAT),ihex)
build: elf hex lss sym
hex: $(TARGET).hex
IMGEXT=hex
else
ifeq ($(FORMAT),binary)
build: elf bin lss sym
bin: $(TARGET).bin
IMGEXT=bin
else
$(error "$(MSG_FORMATERROR) $(FORMAT)")
endif
endif

elf: $(TARGET).elf
lss: $(TARGET).lss
sym: $(TARGET).sym

# Eye candy.
begin:
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_BEGIN)

finished:
  @echo $(MSG_ERRORS_NONE)

end:
  @echo $(MSG_END)
  @echo


# Display size of file.
HEXSIZE = $(SIZE) --target=$(FORMAT) $(TARGET).hex
ELFSIZE = $(SIZE) -A $(TARGET).elf
sizebefore:
  @if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_BEFORE);
$(ELFSIZE); echo; fi

sizeafter:
  @if [ -f $(TARGET).elf ]; then echo; echo $(MSG_SIZE_AFTER);
$(ELFSIZE); echo; fi


# Display compiler version information.
gccversion :
  @$(CC) --version


# Program the device.
ifeq ($(FLASH_TOOL),UVISION)
# Program the device with Keil's uVision (needs configured
uVision-Workspace).
program: $(TARGET).$(IMGEXT)
  @echo
  @echo "Programming with uVision"
  C:\Keil\uv3\Uv3.exe -f uvisionflash.Uv2 -ouvisionflash.txt
#  $(REMOVE) ../Common_WinARM/$(TARGET).hex
#  $(COPY) $(TARGET).hex ../Common_WinARM/
#  C:\Keil\uv3\Uv3.exe -f ..\Common_WinARM\uvisionflash.Uv2
else
ifeq ($(FLASH_TOOL),OPENOCD)
# Program the device with Dominic Rath's OPENOCD in "batch-mode", needs
cfg and

"reset-script".
program: $(TARGET).$(IMGEXT)
  @echo
  @echo "Programming with OPENOCD"
  C:\WinARM\utils\openocd\openocd_svn59\openocd.exe -f
oocd_sam7_flash.cfg
else
# Program the device.  - lpc21isp will not work for SAM7
program: $(TARGET).$(IMGEXT)
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_LPC21_RESETREMINDER)
  $(LPC21ISP) $(LPC21ISP_OPTIONS) $(LPC21ISP_DEBUG) 
$(LPC21ISP_FLASHFILE)

$(LPC21ISP_PORT) $(LPC21ISP_BAUD) $(LPC21ISP_XTAL)
endif
endif


# Create final output file (.hex) from ELF output file.
%.hex: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
  $(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) $< $@

# Create final output file (.bin) from ELF output file.
%.bin: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_FLASH) $@
  $(OBJCOPY) -O $(FORMAT) $< $@


# Create extended listing file from ELF output file.
# testing: option -C
%.lss: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_EXTENDED_LISTING) $@
  $(OBJDUMP) -h -S -C $< > $@


# Create a symbol table from ELF output file.
%.sym: %.elf
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_SYMBOL_TABLE) $@
  $(NM) -n $< > $@


# Link: create ELF output file from object files.
.SECONDARY : $(TARGET).elf
.PRECIOUS : $(AOBJARM) $(AOBJ) $(COBJARM) $(COBJ) $(CPPOBJ) $(CPPOBJARM)
%.elf:  $(AOBJARM) $(AOBJ) $(COBJARM) $(COBJ) $(CPPOBJ) $(CPPOBJARM)
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_LINKING) $@
  $(CC) $(THUMB) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(AOBJARM) $(AOBJ) $(COBJARM) $(COBJ)
$(CPPOBJ)

$(CPPOBJARM) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)
#  $(CPP) $(THUMB) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(AOBJARM) $(AOBJ) $(COBJARM) $(COBJ)
$(CPPOBJ)

$(CPPOBJARM) --output $@ $(LDFLAGS)

# Compile: create object files from C source files. ARM/Thumb
$(COBJ) : %.o : %.c
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILING) $<
  $(CC) -c $(THUMB) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CONLYFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create object files from C source files. ARM-only
$(COBJARM) : %.o : %.c
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILING_ARM) $<
  $(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CONLYFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create object files from C++ source files. ARM/Thumb
$(CPPOBJ) : %.o : %.cpp
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILINGCPP) $<
  $(CPP) -c $(THUMB) $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@

# Compile: create object files from C++ source files. ARM-only
$(CPPOBJARM) : %.o : %.cpp
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_COMPILINGCPP_ARM) $<
  $(CPP) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Compile: create assembler files from C source files. ARM/Thumb
## does not work - TODO - hints welcome
##$(COBJ) : %.s : %.c
##  $(CC) $(THUMB) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files. ARM/Thumb
$(AOBJ) : %.o : %.S
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING) $<
  $(CC) -c $(THUMB) $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Assemble: create object files from assembler source files. ARM-only
$(AOBJARM) : %.o : %.S
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_ASSEMBLING_ARM) $<
  $(CC) -c $(ALL_ASFLAGS) $< -o $@


# Target: clean project.
clean: begin clean_list finished end


clean_list :
  @echo
  @echo $(MSG_CLEANING)
  $(REMOVE) ../Common_WinARM/$(TARGET).hex
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).hex
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).bin
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).elf
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).map
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).obj
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).a90
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).sym
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lnk
  $(REMOVE) $(TARGET).lss
  $(REMOVE) $(COBJ)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPOBJ)
  $(REMOVE) $(AOBJ)
  $(REMOVE) $(COBJARM)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPOBJARM)
  $(REMOVE) $(AOBJARM)
  $(REMOVE) $(LST)
#  $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRC:.c=.d)
#  $(REMOVE) $(SRCARM:.c=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(SRCARM:.c=.d)
#  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRC:.cpp=.d)
#  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.s)
  $(REMOVE) $(CPPSRCARM:.cpp=.d)
  $(REMOVE) .dep/*


# Include the dependency files.
-include $(shell mkdir .dep 2>/dev/null) $(wildcard .dep/*)


# Listing of phony targets.
.PHONY : all begin finish end sizebefore sizeafter gccversion \
build elf hex bin lss sym clean clean_list program

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